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Glossary of Physiology Terms
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There are 4 glossary search results for:   secretion




Definition:
Secretion refers to cellular release of substances (ions and small and large molecules) to the external environment of the cell. Secretion may be accomplished by exocytosis (fusion of transport vesicles with the plasma membrane and release of vesicle contents to the external environment), by transport of molecules across the plasma membrane (via the activity of transport proteins such as pumps, transporters, and channels), or by simple diffusion of fat-soluble molecules through the plasma membrane out of the cell.

For example, endocrine cells secrete hormone molecules that then enter the bloodstream. Neurons release (i.e., secrete) neurotransmitter molecules into the synaptic cleft. Some neurons secrete neurohormones; which similar to hormones, travel in the bloodstream to reach distant target cells. Epithelial cells secrete molecules in luminal spaces, such as digestive enzymes secreted into the digestive tract by various cell types.

See also:
Excretion



Definition:
The action potential is a rapid and reversible reversal of the electrical potential difference across the plasma membrane of excitable cells such as neurons, muscle cells and some endocrine cells. In a neuronal action potential, the membrane potential rapidly changes from its resting level of approximately -70 mV to around +50 mV and, subsequently, rapidly returns to the resting level again. The neuronal action potential forms an important basis for information processing, propagation, and transmission. In muscle cells, the action potential precedes, and is necessary to bring about, muscle contraction. Some endocrine cells also exhibit action potentials, where the excitation leads to hormone secretion.

The action potential is also referred to as the electrical impulse or nervous impulse.

Related glossary terms/phrases:
Graded potential

See also:
Neuronal Action Potential



Definition:
Endocrine glands contain clusters of endocrine cells, whose function is to is to release hormones into the bloodstream.

Endocrine glands are ductless glands in that their secretions do not enter a duct (as for example with salivary glands). Rather, endocrine glands release their secretions (i.e., messenger molecules) into the interstitial fluid in highly vascularized regions, where the molecules then enter the bloodstream. The chemical messenger molecule that is released into the bloodstream is referred to as a hormone.

Related glossary terms/phrases:
Endocrine cell
Hormone



Definition:
Underactivity of the anterior pituitary gland characterized by reduced secretion of anterior pituitary hormones.









Posted: Sunday, March 31, 2013
Last updated: Friday, August 28, 2015