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There are 7 glossary search results for:   Active transport




Definition:
A type of secondary active transport across a biological membrane in which a transport protein couples the movement of an ion (usually Na+ or H+) down its electrochemical gradient to the movement of another ion or molecule against a concentration or electrochemical gradient. The ion moving down its electrochemical gradient is referred to as the driving ion. The ion/molecule being transported against a chemical or electrochemical gradient is referred to as the driven ion/molecule.

In cotransport, the direction of transport is the same for both the driving ion and driven ion/molecule (into the cell or out of the cell).

An example is the Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT), which couples the movement of Na+ into the cell down its electrochemical gradient to the movement of glucose into the cell against its concentration gradient.

Cotransport is also commonly referred to as symport.

Transport proteins that are involved in this type of transport are referred to as cotransporters or symporters.

See:
Symport

Related glossary terms/phrases:
Secondary active transport
Exchange

See also:
Lecture notes on Secondary Active Transport



Definition:
Secondary active transport

See:
Secondary active transport



Definition:
Secondary active transport is a type of active transport across a biological membrane in which a transport protein couples the movement of an ion (typically Na+ or H+) down its electrochemical gradient to the movement of another ion or molecule against a concentration or electrochemical gradient. The ion moving down its electrochemical gradient is referred to as the driving ion. The ion/molecule being transported against a chemical or electrochemical gradient is referred to as the driven ion/molecule.

This transport process is referred to as active transport because the driven ion/molecule is transported against a concentration or electrochemical gradient. It is referred to as secondary active transport because no ATP hydrolysis is involved in this process (as opposed to primary active transport). The energy required to drive transport resides in the transmembrane electrochemical gradient of the driving ion.

Secondary active transport is also referred to as ion-coupled transport. Those utilizing Na+ as the driving ion are called Na+-coupled transporters. Those utilizing H+ as the driving ion are called H+-coupled transporters.

Two types of secondary active transport exist: cotransport (also known as symport) and exchange (also known as antiport). Na+/glucose cotransporter and H+/dipeptide cotransporter are examples of cotransporters. Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and Na+/H+ exchanger are examples of exchangers.

Related glossary terms/phrases:
Cotransport
Symport
Exchange
Antiport

See also:
Lecture notes on Secondary Active Transport



Definition:
Electrogenic pumps are primary active transporters that hydrolyze ATP and use the energy released from ATP hydrolysis to transport ions across biological membranes leading to the translocation of net charge across the membrane.

For example, the Na+/K+ ATPase (sodium pump) is an electrogenic pump because during every transport cycle, it transports 3 Na+ ions out of the cell and 2 K+ ions into the cell. This leads to the movement of one net positive charge out of the cell making this process electrogenic.

Related glossary terms/phrases:
Electrogenic



Definition:
An electrogenic transport process is one that leads to the translocation of net charge across the membrane. For example, ion channels such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Cl channels are electrogenic.

The Na+/K+ ATPase is electrogenic because for every ATP molecule hydrolyzed, 3 Na+ ions are transported out of the cell and 2 K+ ions are transported into the cell (leading to the translocation of one net positive charge out of the cell).

Many secondary active transporters are also electrogenic. For example, the Na+/glucose cotransporter (found in the small intestine and kidney proximal tubules), transports 2 Na+ ions and 1 glucose molecule into the cell across the plasma membrane (leading to the translocation of two net positive charges into the cell per transport cycle).



Definition:
A type of secondary active transport across a biological membrane in which a transport protein couples the movement of an ion (usually Na+ or H+) down its electrochemical gradient to the movement of another ion or molecule against a concentration or electrochemical gradient. The ion moving down its electrochemical gradient is referred to as the driving ion. The ion/molecule being transported against a chemical or electrochemical gradient is referred to as the driven ion/molecule.

In exchange, the driving ion and the driven ion/molecule are transported across the biological membrane in opposite directions.

An example is the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), which couples the movement of 3 Na+ ions into the cell down its electrochemical gradient to the movement of 1 Ca2+ ion out of the cell against its electrochemical gradient.

Exchange is also commonly referred to as antiport.

Transport proteins that are involved in this type of transport are referred to as exchangers or antiporters.

See:
Antiport

Related glossary terms/phrases:
Secondary active transport
Cotransport

See also:
Lecture notes on Secondary Active Transport



Abbreviation:
Na+

Definition:
The main cation (positively charged ion) of the extracellular fluid.

Sodium (Na+) plays an important role in several physiological processes such as the action potential of neurons and muscle cells, secondary active, sodium-coupled transport of ions, nutrients, neurotransmitters across the plasma membrane of cells, and many other processes.

The extracellular concentration of Na+ is about 145 mM. The intracellular concentration of Na+ is about 15 mM.









Posted: Sunday, March 31, 2013
Last updated: Friday, August 28, 2015