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Glossary of Physiology Terms
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There are 16 glossary search results for:   receptor




Abbreviation:
ACh

Definition:
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a chemical neurotransmitter used by the central nervous system (CNS) as well as the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Acetylcholine is a classical neurotransmitter and, in fact, it was the first of the classic neurotransmitters to be discovered. It was discovered in 1914 by Henry Hallett Dale while conducting experiments on the heart.

Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter used by the somatic division of the nervous system at the neuromuscular junction (where a somatic motor neuron makes synaptic contact with a skeletal muscle cell). Acetylcholine is also used extensively by both branches of the autonomic nervous system; sympathetic and parasympathetic. It is the primary neurotransmitter released in autonomic ganglia by preganglionic autonomic neurons. It is also the primary neurotransmitter released by parasympathetic postganglionic neurons. A few sympathetic postganglionic neurons also release acetylcholine. The diverse actions of acetylcholine are exerted via the activation of nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors.

Other resources:
Acetylcholine (Wikipedia)



Definition:
An enzyme found in the synaptic cleft at cholinergic synapses. It degrades acetylcholine to choline and acetate and, thus, terminates the action of acetylcholine at the synapse. Neither choline nor acetate can bind to acetylcholine receptors (nicotinic or muscarinic).



Definition:
Leading toward a region or structure of interest.

In the nervous system, afferent fibers (i.e., neurons) transmit information from a peripheral receptor to the spinal cord or the brainstem. Afferent neurons are also referred to as sensory neurons.

In the kidneys, the afferent arteriole carries blood to the glomerular capillaries.

Related glossary terms/phrases:
Efferent



Definition:
An agonist is a molecule that binds to a receptor and activates a physiological response similar to that induced by the naturally occurring physiological ligand of the receptor. Therefore, agonist binding to a receptor mimics the action of the natural ligand.

For example, acetylcholine (ACh) is the naturally occurring physiological ligand that activates nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Nicotine is an agonist of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChR), and muscarine is an agonist of muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChR).

Related glossary terms/phrases:
Antagonist



Definition:
An antagonist is a molecule that binds to a receptor, however, it does not activate the physiological response induced by the naturally occurring physiological ligand of the receptor. Moreover, once bound to the receptor, an antagonist prevents the physiological ligand from activating the receptor. Therefore, antagonist binding to a receptor prevents or blocks the action of the natural ligand.

For example, acetylcholine (ACh) is the naturally occurring physiological ligand that activates nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Tubocurarine and succinylcholine are antagonists of the nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR), and atropine is an antagonist of the muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR).

Related glossary terms/phrases:
Agonist



Definition:
Atropine is a blocker (i.e., inhibitor) of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Therefore, atropine blocks the action of postganglionic parasympathetic neurons.



Definition:
Refers to neurons, synapses, or receptors where acetylcholine is used as the neurotransmitter.

For example, cholinergic neurons release acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter.

In cholinergic synapses, acetylcholine is released from the presynaptic neuron, and it acts on acetylcholine receptors in the plasma membrane of the postsynaptic cell.

Cholinergic receptors are those that respond to acetylcholine as the physiological ligand. The two major types are nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors (may also be referred to as nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors).

Cholinergic drugs are compounds that mimic the action of acetylcholine by binding to and activating cholinergic receptors.



Definition:
A potent blocker of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, nAChR) found at the neuromuscular junction. At small doses, curare can lead to muscle weakness. At high doses, curare can lead to paralysis of skeletal muscles, which would also result in asphyxiation (and ultimately death) due to paralysis of the diaphragm. Curare was commonly the active agent of poison arrow.

Other resources:
See Wikipedia



Abbreviation:
GABA

Definition:
GABA is an inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system. During embryonic development, GABA acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at some central synapses. GABA is a classical neurotransmitter. Its action is exerted via the activation of GABAA, GABAB, and GABAC receptors. GABAA and GABAC receptors are ligand-gated chloride channels, whereas GABAB receptors are G protein coupled receptors. At GABAergic synapses, the action of GABA is terminated by GABA transporters (GAT), which transport GABA from the extracellular space in synaptic and extrasynaptic regions into neurons and glia.



Definition:
Glutamate (Glu, E) is one of the standard twenty (20) amino acids used by cells to synthesize peptides, polypeptides, and proteins. It has a molecular weight of 147.13 g/mol. Its side chain has a pKa of 4.07 and, therefore, glutamate has a net negative charge at physiological pH.

In the nervous system, glutamate is an excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter. In fact, glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system. Glutamate is a classical neurotransmitter. Its action is exerted via the activation of glutamate receptors (GluR), some of which are ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic receptors), and some are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, metabotropic receptors). At glutamatergic synapses, the action of glutamate is terminated by glutamate transporters (EAAT, excitatory amino acid transporter), which transport glutamate from the extracellular space in synaptic and extrasynaptic regions into neurons and glia.



Definition:
Glycine (Gly, G) is one of the standard twenty (20) amino acids. At a molecular weight of 75.07 g/mol, it is the smallest of the 20 amino acids used by cells to synthesize peptides, polypeptides, and proteins.

In the nervous system, glycine is also an inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter. Glycinergic synapses are most commonly found in brain stem and spinal cord circuits. Glycine is a classical neurotransmitter. Its action is exerted via the activation of ionotropic glycine receptors (GlyR), which are ligand-gated chloride channels. At glycinergic synapses, the action of glycine is terminated by glycine transporters (GlyT), which transport glycine from the extracellular space in synaptic and extrasynaptic regions into neurons and glia.



Definition:
Refers to synaptic or receptor potentials that can vary in amplitude and direction. Graded potentials can be depolarizing or hyperpolarizing and do not have a threshold.

Related glossary terms/phrases:
Action potential

See also:
Neuronal Action Potential - Introduction
Neuronal Action Potential - Graded Potentials versus Action Potentials



Definition:
Neurotoxins are chemical molecules that have an adverse effect on neuron function and, thus, disrupt the normal function of the nervous system. Neurotoxins could be small molecules or peptides and can be derived from a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate animals, as well as plant species.

The following is a short list of some examples of neurotoxins:

α-Bungarotoxin: A peptide neurotoxin that inhibits the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

Chlorotoxin: A peptide neurotoxin that inhibits chloride channels.

α-Conotoxin: A peptide neurotoxin that inhibits the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

δ-Conotoxin: A peptide neurotoxin that inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels.

w-Conotoxin: A peptide neurotoxin that inhibits N-type voltage-gated calcium channels.

Picrotoxin: Inhibits GABAA receptor chloride channels.

Tetrodotoxin: Inhibitor of neuronal voltage-gated sodium channels.



Definition:
The voltage difference across a cell plasma membrane in the resting or quiescent state. It is also simply referred to as the resting potential (Vrest). The value of the resting membrane potential varies from cell to cell. Depending on the cell type, it can range from −90 mV to −20 mV.

For example, Vrest is −90 mV in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells as well as in astrocytes. In a typical neuron, Vrest is approximately −70 mV. In many non-excitable cells, Vrest ranges from −60 to −50 mV. In photoreceptors, Vrest is about −20 mV.

See also:
Resting membrane potential



Definition:
Tastants are taste-provoking chemical molecules that are dissolved in ingested liquids or saliva.

Tastants stimulate the sense of taste. It can also be said that tastants elicit gustatory excitation.

A tastant is the appropriate ligand for receptor proteins located on the plasma membrane of taste receptor cells.



Definition:
In humans, taste buds are the sensory receptor areas primarily on the tongue, but also in the throat, where taste receptor cells are located. In humans, there are approximately 10,000 taste buds in the oral cavity (tongue) and throat. A typical human taste bud contains about 50 taste receptor cells. Stimulation of taste receptor cells by tastants elicits the sense of taste (also referred to as gustation).









Posted: Sunday, March 31, 2013
Last updated: Friday, August 28, 2015