PhysiologyWeb Logo  Search
PhysiologyWeb Loading...

Glossary of Physiology Terms
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Search

There are 6 glossary search results for:   small intestine




Definition:
The semi-solid, partially-digested contents of the stomach that exit via the pyloric valve to enter the duodenum (initial region) of the small intestine.



Definition:
The first region (i.e., most proximal region) of the small intestine. Chyme leaving the stomach (through the pyloric valve) first enters the duodenum. The contents of the duodenum empty into the jejunum (middle region of the small intestine). In adult humans, the duodenum is about 25-38 cm (10-15 inches) long.

Related glossary terms/phrases:
Jejunum
Ileum



Definition:
An electrogenic transport process is one that leads to the translocation of net charge across the membrane. For example, ion channels such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Cl channels are electrogenic.

The Na+/K+ ATPase is electrogenic because for every ATP molecule hydrolyzed, 3 Na+ ions are transported out of the cell and 2 K+ ions are transported into the cell (leading to the translocation of one net positive charge out of the cell).

Many secondary active transporters are also electrogenic. For example, the Na+/glucose cotransporter (found in the small intestine and kidney proximal tubules), transports 2 Na+ ions and 1 glucose molecule into the cell across the plasma membrane (leading to the translocation of two net positive charges into the cell per transport cycle).



Definition:
The last region (i.e., most distal region) of the small intestine. Ileum receives the contents of the jejunum and, in turn, the contents of ileum leave the small intestine by emptying into the cecum. In adult humans, the ileum is about 2-4 meters (about 6.5-13 feet) long.

Related glossary terms/phrases:
Duodenum
Jejunum



Definition:
A glycoprotein released by parietal cells (also know as oxyntic cells) located in the fundus region of the stomach. Intrinsic factor is required for vitamin B12 absorption in the small intestine.



Definition:
The middle region of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum. The jejunum receives the contents of the duodenum and, in turn, its contents empty into the ileum. In adult humans, the jejunum is about 2.5 meters (about 8 feet) long.

Related glossary terms/phrases:
Duodenum
Ileum









Posted: Sunday, March 31, 2013
Last updated: Friday, August 28, 2015