Secondary active transport
Secondary active transport is a type of active transport across a biological membrane in which a transport protein couples the movement of an ion (typically Na+
) down its electrochemical gradient to the movement of another ion or molecule against a concentration or electrochemical gradient. The ion moving down its electrochemical gradient is referred to as the driving ion. The ion/molecule being transported against a chemical or electrochemical gradient is referred to as the driven ion/molecule.
This transport process is referred to as active
transport because the driven ion/molecule is transported against a concentration or electrochemical gradient. It is referred to as secondary
active transport because no ATP hydrolysis is involved in this process (as opposed to primary active transport). The energy required to drive transport resides in the transmembrane electrochemical gradient of the driving ion.
Secondary active transport is also referred to as ion-coupled transport. Those utilizing Na+
as the driving ion are called Na+
-coupled transporters. Those utilizing H+
as the driving ion are called H+
Two types of secondary active transport exist: cotransport
(also known as symport
) and exchange
(also known as antiport
/glucose cotransporter and H+
/dipeptide cotransporter are examples of cotransporters. Na+
exchanger and Na+
exchanger are examples of exchangers.
Related glossary terms/phrases:CotransportSymportExchangeAntiport
Lecture notes on Secondary Active Transport