The kidneys are of outstanding importance. They perform a number of homeostatic functions including filtration of plasma and elimination of metabolic waste products, regulation of the composition and volume of the extracellular fluid, and regulation of blood pressure. The kidneys are also endocrine organs. Test your basic knowledge of renal physiology by taking this simple quiz.
(1) Of the five epithelial junctions listed below, this junction type is responsible for regulating the permeability of the paracellular pathway in epithelial sheets.
(2) An increase in plasma osmolality leads to a(n) __________ in the circulating levels of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin).
(3) In the presence of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin), the water that is reabsorbed from the lumen of the nephron collecting duct is returned to the circulation via capillaries referred to as the:
(4) The antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin) induces the trafficking of this water channel (aquaporin) isoform to the apical membrane of epithelial cells in the nephron collecting duct.