The kidneys are of outstanding importance. They perform a number of homeostatic functions including filtration of plasma and elimination of metabolic waste products, regulation of the composition and volume of the extracellular fluid, and regulation of blood pressure. The kidneys are also endocrine organs. Test your basic knowledge of renal physiology by taking this simple quiz.
(1) The kidney collecting duct represents an example of a __________ epithelium.
(2) The human urinary bladder epithelium represents an example of a __________ epithelium.
(3) Regarding the structural organization of kidney nephrons, the macula densa cells of the distal tubule are in close proximity of the following blood vessels associated with the same nephron:
(4) In the kidneys, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) remains nearly constant at 125 mL/min so long as the mean arterial blood pressure is maintained within the following range:
(5) In the epithelial cells of the kidney proximal tubules, the microvilli increase the surface area of the apical membrane by approximately a factor of: